The law grants equal power to a husband and a wife to demand divorce from each other. While divorce can be filed for multiple reasons, the statute provides various grounds on which a couple can decide to end their marriage. Even though the grounds for divorce may vary depending upon the couple’s religion as well as the manner in which the marriage has been solemnised, a few grounds are found to be common across the board.

When a marriage fails, the husband and wife begin to blame and accuse each other. These allegations are not true until proven so in the court of law.
Factors that generally lead a couple to the court are-

This is a no-fault ground to obtain a divorce, where neither of the spouses makes any allegations against another; instead, they just claim that the marriage is broken beyond repair due to irreparable differences between the couple.

Domestic violence is a behaviour involving violence or other abuse by the husband against the wife in a “domestic” setting, such as in a marriage or cohabitation. To deal with this issue, the Domestic Violence Act, 2005 was instituted.

While domestic violence and cruelty may go hand in hand, cruelty may be physical, mental and/or emotional. Any act of either spouse, which puts another’s life or health in danger or makes them believe that their life or health is in danger, amounts to cruelty.

Cruelty has been defined under Section 498A of the Indian Penal Code as well as under various provisions applicable to marriages under different religions.

Adultery is an act by a married man of having consensual sexual intercourse with a married woman. According to our law, only a man can be charged with the criminal offence of adultery. The wife may, of course, file for divorce as a civil remedy. If, on the other hand, a wife commits adultery, she cannot be charged with a criminal offence. The husband can seek prosecution of the adulterer male and file a divorce petition against the wife.

Dowry is the property or valuable security given or agreed to be given either directly or indirectly by the bride’s family to the groom’s family over the promise of marriage. The Dowry Prohibition Act, 1961 constitutes giving or taking dowry as a criminal offence.

Where a spouse is incapable of performing the typical marital obligations on account of mental illness, divorce can be sought. In such cases, the parties can also choose the option of annulment of marriage.

If one spouse abandons the other, for a continuous period of at least 2 years, without a valid and reasonable cause then the spouse who has been abandoned can seek a divorce. However, the spouse who abandons the other should intend to desert and there should be proof of it.

INFIDELITY- The spouse is romantically involved with someone outside of marriage. IMPOTENCY- Incapacity of the spouse to engage in sexual intercourse, either physically or mentally. INFERTILITY- Inability of the spouse to reproduce.

LEPROSY- Incurable skin disease which causes extreme disability making it difficult to perform matrimonial duties. SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASE- Communicable venereal disease which is spread through sexual intercourse threatening the life of the partner. RENUNCIATION OF THE WORLD- Giving up worldly pleasures thereby ostracising matrimonial norms.

NO RESUMPTION OF COHABITATION- The couple refuse to resume their marriage after judicial separation. REFUSAL TO STAY TOGETHER- The spouse moves out of the matrimonial home without any just cause. GUILTY OF SEXUAL CRIMES- The husband has been pronounced guilty of sexual offences;

BIGAMY- The spouse marries another person without obtaining divorce from first spouse.

ILLEGAL AGE- The wife was of 15 years of age at the time of marriage and repudiated the marriage before turning 18.

MARRIAGE NOT CONSUMMATED- Unjustified denial of the spouse to engage in sexual intercourse resulting in cruelty.


Author- Advocate Jeevan Toprani, Gurgaon

Daughters to Have Equal Rights in Ancestral Property

Section 6 of Hindu Succession Act, 2005

India has been a patriarchal society where there has been unfair discrimination of woman with her rights to inheritance of her Father’s property. This was reflected in laws like the Hindu Succession Act, 1956, which did not give women a birth right in the joint family property under Mitakshara coparcenary. The Hindu Succession Act got amended in 2005 with a view to re-affirm the equality granted to women under Article 14 of the Constitution. The amendment provided daughters equal rights in coparcenary property on birth, at par with sons. After the amendment, daughters enjoy the same rights and liabilities as the sons do. Giving women rights in coparcenary property can make them financially strong and stable.
The Constitution of India enshrines the principle of gender equality in its Preamble and Parts III, IV and IVA pertaining to Fundamental Rights, Fundamental Duties and Directive Principles respectively. The Constitution not only grants equality to women, but also empowers the State to adopt measures of positive discrimination in favour of women. And now as India becomes increasingly aware of the need for equal rights for women, the government can’t afford to overlook, property rights have a deep impact on the society. The need to dispense gender justice raises deep political debate and at times acrimony in legislative forums.

What Is Mitakshara Coparcenary?
• Coparcenary is a narrower body of persons within a joint family, and consists of father, son, son’s son, son’s son’s son. The disparity in the property rights on the basis of gender is deep rooted and can be traced back to the ancient times. Traditional Hindu inheritance laws evolved from the ancient texts of Dharmashastras and the various commentaries and legal treatises on them. In particular, the Mitakshara and the Dayabhaga legal doctrines, dated around the twelfth century AD govern the inheritance practices among the Hindus. In most of northern and parts of western India Mitakshara law came into existence.

• Under the Mitakshara law, on birth, the son acquires a right and interest in the family property. According to this school, a son, grandson and a great grandson constitute a class of coparceners, based on birth in the family. No female is a member of the coparcenary in Mitakshara law. Under the Mitakshara system, joint family property devolves by survivorship within the coparcenary. This means that with every birth or death of a male in the family, the share of every other surviving male either gets diminished or enlarged. If a coparcenary consists of a father and his two sons, each would own one third of the property. If another son is born in the family, automatically the share of each male is reduced to one fourth. The Mitakshara law also recognizes inheritance by succession but only to the property separately owned by an individual male or female. Females are included as heirs to this kind of property by Mitakshara law.
The Hindu Succession (Amendment) Act, 2005
The Hindu Succession (Amendment) Act, 2005 was seeks to make two major amendments in the Hindu Succession Act, 1956. First, it is proposed to remove the gender discrimination in section 6 of the original Act. Second, it proposes to omit section 23 of the original Act, which disentitles a female heir to ask for partition in respect of a dwelling house, wholly occupied by a joint family, until the male heirs choose to divide their property.

Section 6A ( Hindu Succession Act)
The laws got amended in 2005 after more than 50 years with the assent of Hindu Succession Act, 2004 bill by providing daughters equal rights in property on birth, at par with sons. After the amendment, daughters can enjoy the same rights and liabilities as sons. Giving women rights in property has made them financially strong and stable.
 The daughter by birth can become a coparcener in her own right the same manner as the son.

 The daughter can have the same rights in the coparcenary property as she would have had if she had been a son

 The daughter can now become the karta of the family, and

 The daughter who is alive as well as the one who is predeceased is allotted the same share as is allotted to a son.

Laws reflect the face of society and its evolution over the time. To respond to the needs of a dynamic social system, laws have to be changed and amended, at regular intervals. As far as the basic objective of the Act is to remove gender discriminatory practices in the property laws of the Hindus, whereby daughters have been given the status of coparceners in the Mitakshara joint family system. However, the position of other Class I female heirs should not suffer as a result of this move.
However, it does not interfere with the special rights of those who are members of Hindu Mitakshara coparcenary except to provide rules for devolution of the interest of a deceased male in certain cases. The Act lays down a uniform and comprehensive system of inheritance and applies, inter alia, to persons governed by the Mitakshara and Dayabhaga schools and also

Changes Brought In The Position Of The Women-An Analysis
• Out of many significant benefits brought in for women, one of the significant benefit has been to make women coparcenary (right by birth) in Mitakshara joint family property. Earlier the female heir only had a deceased man’s notional portion. With this amendment, both male and female will get equal rights.

• In a major blow to patriarchy, centuries-old customary Hindu law in the shape of the exclusive male mitakshara coparcenary has been breached throughout the country.

• The preferential right by birth of sons in joint family property, with the offering of “shradha” for the spiritual benefit and solace of ancestors, has for centuries been considered sacred and inviolate. It has also played a major role in the blatant preference for sons in Indian society. This amendment, has made the daughter a member of the coparcenary and is a significant advancement towards gender equality.

• The significant changes of making all daughters including those who are married coparceners in joint family property has been of a of great importance for women, both economically and symbolically. Economically, it can enhance women’s security, by giving them birth rights in property that cannot be willed away by men. In a male-based society where wills often disinherit women, this is a substantial gain.

• The Women can become kartas of the property. Symbolically, all these movement signals that daughters and sons are equally important members of the parental family. It undermines the notion that after marriage the daughter belongs only to her husband’s family. If her marriage breaks down, she can now return to her birth home by right, and not on the sufferance of relatives. This will enhance her self-confidence and social worth and give her greater bargaining power for herself and her children, in both parental and marital families.

The Preamble to the Amending Acts indicates the objective as the removal of discrimination against daughters inherent in the mitakshara coparcenary and thereby eradication of the baneful system of dowry by positive measures thus ameliorating the condition of women in the human society.
Now under the amendment, daughters will now get a share equal to that of sons at the time of the notional partition, just before the death of the father, and an equal share of the father’s separate share. Equal distribution of undivided interests in coparcenary property. However, the position of the mother vis-à-vis the coparcenary stays the same. She, not being a member of the coparcenary, will not get a share at the time of the notional partition. The mother will be entitled to an equal share with other Class I heirs only from the separate share of the father computed at the time of the notional partition. In effect, the actual share of the mother will go down, as the separate share of the father will be less as the property will now be equally divided between father, sons and daughters in the notional partition.

Author : Ms Ekta Jha, 08/02/2018, – World Of Possibilities

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BCI verifying these fake and non-practicing lawyers

The law minister, Sadananda Gowda, said that BCI has already framed the Bar Council of India Certificate and Place of Practice (Verification) Rules, 2015. State level committees have also been formed with the help of the State Bar Councils, to get started with the process.

This procedure was initiated after BCI received several complains about lawyers with fake degrees, and unethical standards adopted by many in the profession. It will be completed within six to seven months. The BCI has informed that the exact number of fake lawyers cannot be ascertained as of now, because the total number of such people is not known. The step is being taken with the view to filter the system as those with fake degrees are disrespecting the profession. It will also ensure that non-practicing lawyers enrolled with the State Bar Councils do not avail of the benefits or any welfare schemes meant for lawyers.

A proposal for BCI’s own Lawyers’ Academy has also been brought forward, with the view of instilling professionalism and ethical standards among advocates.

Thus in a few months, India can be free of those who are using fake law degrees and cheating people in the process.

(by Advocate Jeevan Toprani)

Repeat & Sex Offender List for Crimes

It is the need of the hour that that an open registry of repeat offender be provided to all in the country.

There could be criminals living next to you and there would be no action by the authorities.

Let us all request the police to provide us with the list ~!

India is set to have its first registry for sex offenders but government departments and law enforcement agencies are still debating whether the details should be made public, the Home Ministry has told the Supreme Court.

The Centre is sceptical about publishing the information as it could have a negative impact on those who turn out to be ‘innocent’ later and their ‘return to the mainstream’ with their public naming and shaming.

by Jeevan Toprni

Government gives 2 IPS officers marching orders by Adv Jeevan Toprani

The Complaints at the hands of the government are increasing and non performing officers are increasing the system.

Invoking Rule 16(3) of All India Services (Death-cum-Retirement Benefits) Rules, 1958, the Union Home ministry prematurely retired Mayank Sheel Chohan of AGMUT cadre, 1998 batch and Raj Kumar Dewangan of Chhattisgarh cadre, 1992 batch on January 5. The action was approved by the Appointments Committee of the Cabinet (ACC), headed by the Prime Minister.

Every citizen has a right to complaint and be heard. The Judiciary has the right to judge not the policing service but sometime the officers forget their duties and role as an officer – they discard the complaint of the citizens. The Complaint keep rising and reach the desk of the head of state – the choice of the head of the state is to act or resign.

The Citizens will not forget the bad governance of the govt. if action on these bureaucrats is not taken timely. A senior Home ministry official said the action, though not happening for the first time, will definitely serve as a deterrent and force bureaucrats to take their job seriously. “As far as I remember, two Maharashtra cadre IPS officers were forced to go on compulsory retirement some 15 years ago,” said the official.

Read the complete story about the matter

Jai Hind –

Cheque Bounce Issues by Adv Jeevan Toprani

Why you have to be careful about the cheques issue

An overview
Cheques are the most common, safe and authentic way of making any financial transaction in both business as well as personal world. But, what happens when the cheque issued by the payer to the beneficiary bounces? Primarily, dishonoring of a cheque hampers the credibility of the payer and causes unjust inconvenience to the payee. Legally, it is a punishable offence. In India, there are numerous pending cases in the courts on the same that needs to be adjudicated.

What are the various grounds on which a cheque can be bounced by the banks?
Insufficient funds in the issuer’s bank
Signature mismatch
Date mentioned on the cheque is disfigured or unreadable
Invalidity of cheque (As cheque is valid only for 3 months from the date mentioned on the face of the document)
Mismatch in the amount in words and numbers
Damaged or torn cheque
Overwriting/scrawling on the cheque
Any suspicion of forgery/fraud by the bank

What are the main grounds that cause dishonor of the cheque as legally enforceable offence?
In accordance to Section 138 of the Negotiable Instrument Act, 1881, a cheque issued by the payer to the payee to meet any debt/liability, if dishonored by the bank due to following reasons, attracts punishment:-

Insufficient funds in the account of the payer
The amount of the cheque is more than the amount arranged to be paid in agreement with the bank

No Stay on Bar Council Verification Process; Do not believe in incorrect Messages; TN Bar Council

Bar Council of Tamil Nadu and Punducherry has issued a notice to clarify that the Supreme Court had not stayed the operation of the Bar Council of India Certificate and Place of Practice (verification) rules, 2015. “It is brought to our notice that a message has been posted in mobile WhatsApp that Hon’ble Supreme Court of India stayed the operation of the Bar Council of India and Certificate and Place of Practice (verification) rules, 2015, but the said message is not correct. It is hereby clarified that the Honorable Supreme Court of India stayed only the withdrawal of exemption granted to the advocates on records. Do not believe the incorrect message”. The messages based on a headline ‘SC stays bar council resolution on verification drive of advocates’ appeared in Hindustan Times, without looking in to the contents, were spreading in lawyers’ WhatsApp groups across the Country. The Hindustan Times report was actually about the stay of Bar Council of India (BCI) resolution requiring Advocates-on-Record (AoRs) to get their professional credentials checked as part of an ongoing verification drive to weed out fake lawyers. The Supreme Court had stayed Bar Council of India’s withdrawal of Exemption granted to‘Advocates on Record’ from filing forms under Certificate and Place of Practice (Verification) Rules 2015 on 10th June 2016. Earlier Supreme Court had directed all the State Bar Councils to take necessary steps and to conclude all ‘verification ‘proceedings by 30.06.2016 and send a reply to the Bar Council of India.